Foster, J.E., Weatherford, B.R., Gillman, E.D., and Yee, B.T., "Underwater operation of a DBD plasma jet," Plasma Sources Sci. Technol., vol. 19, no. 2, 2010.
A plasma jet produced in water using a submerged ac excited electrode in a coaxial dielectric barrier discharge configuration was studied. Plasma jet formation was found to occur only while the source was submerged. Plasma jet operation was characterized with and without gas flow. It was found that over 60% of the discharge power was deposited into the water and did not vary appreciably with excitation frequency. Presumably the remaining power fraction went into excitation, ionization and local electrode heating. Emission spectra of the jet revealed nitrogen, hydrogen, hydroxyl and oxygen emission lines. Operation of the plasma jet in water
containing the oxidation–reduction indicator methylene blue dye resulted in a marked clearing of the water as observed visually and with a spectrophotometer, suggesting plasma-induced chemical reactivity.